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Inventories and scoring systems

Brief pain inventory (BPI):

Measures pain intensity and pain interference. The BPI has ten items with the first

four relating to intensity and the remaining six to pain interference. All items are based on a numeric rating scale (NRS11 in that 0-10). Individual items may be evaluated or an average of the subscale group reported.



Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21):

Scored from 0 (not at all) to 42 (extremely) is used to measure changes in mood. Three subscales assess the core symptoms relating to depression, anxiety and stress.



Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ):

Has 10 items and measures the strength and generality of a patient’s beliefs about their ability to accomplish various activities despite their pain. Scores range from 0-60, with higher scores reflecting stronger confidence to manage their pain.


Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS):

Measures the extent to which a person believes the worst will occur from their pain symptoms. The PCS yields a total score and three subscale scores assessing rumination, magnification and helplessness. The PCS total score is obtained by adding all 13 items with scores ranging from 0-52. Higher scores indicate greater tendency to catastrophise.



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